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Shi Xian Study 19 | Professor Chen Changkun of Central South University and Professor Shi Congling of China Academy of Safety Science and Technology: Study on the Synergistic Flame Retardancy and Smoke Suppression Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles and Intumescent Flame Retardants on TPU
Most polymers have flammable properties and are liable to generate dense smoke during the combustion process. In general, the addition of traditional flame retardants tends to produce a large load on the processing and mechanical properties of polymers, the flame retardant efficiency is not high, and the smoke suppression performance is poor. Carbon-based materials have attracted much attention in recent years due to their low cost, abundant resources, light weight, high strength, and high modulus. A few carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and carbon nanofibers (CNF), etc. It is often used in the industrial production of flame-retardant polymer composites.
Professor Chen Changkun of Central South University and Professor Shi Congling of the Chinese Academy of Safety Science and Technology added CNT / CNF and IFR (APP and MNP) to thermoplastic TPU materials, and studied their flame retardant and smoke suppression synergistic effects in TPU materials.
The researchers vacuum-dried C-TPU, APP, MNP, CNT and CNF, and then melt-blended the above materials in a certain proportion using a twin-screw extruder to process C-TPU composites with different proportions.
Subsequently, infrared-thermogravimetric analysis was used to evaluate the thermal stability of the composites, and the introduction of carbon nanoparticles and intumescent flame retardants using cone calorimetry test, LOI test, UL94 test, etc. on the material's combustion performance and suppression Smoke performance improvement was evaluated.
TG-FTIR test results show that compared with IFR-only composites, CNT / CNF / IFR-containing composites show higher thermal stability at high temperatures, and the amount of residual carbon can be increased by up to 54%. TG-IR results show that the flame retardant system can reduce the release of smoke particles by inhibiting the volatilization of decomposition products, thereby producing a smoke suppression effect.
Smoke density test results show that the combination of CNT / CNF / IFR and flame retardant C-TPU greatly improves smoke release. The luminous flux of C-TPU-3 was increased by 64% and 93% in the flameless and flamed states, respectively.
In addition, the CONE test showed that the combined use of CNT / CNF / IFR significantly reduced the pHRR and THR of the composite, the pHRR value of C-TPU-3 decreased by more than 80%, and the amount of flue gas released decreased by 50%. Improved anti-dripping effect. And when they are used in combination, the UL-94V test reaches the V-0 level. The above test results show the good potential application value of the carbon-based flame retardant system.
Finally, through carbon layer scanning analysis, the researchers analyzed the possible mechanism of the system: the introduction of CNT / CNF / IFR can catalyze the promotion of polymer to carbon in the early stage of decomposition, and form a carbon structure carbon layer in the later stage, Promote the improvement of combustion performance and improvement of dripping performance. In addition, by suppressing the volatilization of the decomposition products, the smoke suppression effect is effectively improved.
Journal of Materials Science (Volume 53, Issue 8, April 2018, pages 6053-6064) (Note: Other authors are Dr. Zhang Xiaolong and Dr. Chen Jie)
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